Malaysian-born Bakri Musa writes frequently on issues affecting his native land. His essays have appeared in the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asiaweek, International Herald Tribune, Education Quarterly, SIngapore's Straits Times, and The New Straits Times. His commentary has aired on National Public Radio's Marketplace. His regular column Seeing It My Way appears in Malaysiakini. Bakri is also a regular contributor to th eSun (Malaysia).
He has previously written "The Malay Dilemma Revisited: Race Dynamics in Modern Malaysia" as well as "Malaysia in the Era of Globalization," "An Education System Worthy of Malaysia," "Seeing Malaysia My Way," and "With Love, From Malaysia."
Bakri's day job (and frequently night time too!) is as a surgeon in private practice in Silicon Valley, California. He and his wife Karen live on a ranch in Morgan Hill.
This website is updated twice a week on Sundays and Wednesdays at 5 PM California time.
The Free Mind: Perspectives From Human Pyschology Studies
The Free Mind: Perspectives From
Human Psychology Studies
M. Bakri Musa
source of insight on the understanding of the mind comes from studies on normal
human beings. First are the various experiments in human psychology and second,
from the newer imaging techniques of the brain, in particular, functional
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (f MRI). I
will review some of the classics of the first to illustrate particular points.
One is Asch’s famous conformity
studies. In the 1950s Solomon Asch had his Yale students partake in an
experiment of “visual judgment” where they would compare the length of a line.
The test was done in a group, and they had to answer verbally. Unbeknownst to
the subject, all the other members of the test group were part of the
The results were startling. In
nearly a third of the time, the subjects would give obviously wrong answers
simply because of pressure from the other “test subjects.” The subjects may express
reservations or protest but in the end they voted with the group, clearly
demonstrating the powerful effect of peer pressure. This insight is fully
exploited by advertisers and propagandists in getting their message accepted.
As the Chinese proverb would have it, three men would make a tiger.
There are many variations to the
basic experiment, like varying the size of the “consensus” group, pairing the
subject with a “trusted” partner and seeing the effect when that partner
disagreed, and having a dissenting member among the experimental collaborators.
This last variation is the most intriguing. It seems that having even only one
dissenting member in the “collaborator” group would greatly reduce a subject’s
propensity to conform.
This persuasive power of a dissenting
minority of even one to disrupt group consensus has great social significance.
That power would be greatly amplified if the dissenter were to be particularly
assertive or otherwise vocal and influential.
It is this
that motivates me to continue writing and express my views knowing that mine is
in the minority, I hope only initially. If expressing my views would make
others examine theirs and encourage them to be more open-minded, then my
mission is accomplished.
Today there is diversity of
viewpoints, political and otherwise, among Malays. That is healthy, although it
makes the work of government propagandists that much more difficult. It is not
a surprise that the government endlessly exhorts us to be “united.” To the authorities,
especially those with an authoritarian bent, any expression of dissent is
viewed as a threat to our “unity” and equate that with being disloyal or
This potential influencing power of
even a lone dissenter to disrupt consensus could be put to good use. When
working on collaborative projects, insightful leaders would often assign a
particular member to be the designated critic, to poke holes in the group’s
decisions and deliberations so as to anticipate possible errors and misleading
conclusions because of “groupthink.”
As another Yale psychologist Irving
Janis observed, “The more amiability and esprit de corps there is … , the
greater the danger that independent critical thinking will be replaced by
groupthink [and] … likely to result in irrational and dehumanizing actions
against out groups.”
Examples abound of bad decisions
made as a consequence of groupthink. In America, there was the failure to
anticipate Pearl Harbor and the Cuban Bay of Pigs fiascos. President Trump is
today using this same particular technique of surrounding himself with only
those who already agree with him. He goes beyond, to demonize those who
disagree with him, including judges who ruled against him, to great effect.
From my perspective, conformity is a
manifestation of a closed mind. It is conformity or peer pressure that makes us
believe the smooth mullah over the braying donkey despite the donkey braying in
Asch’s experiment, like all good ones,
raised more questions than it answered. Foremost is that he used simple or
objective judgments, as with estimating the length of a line. There is little
emotion, cultural value or serious consequences to the decision-making process.
Imagine if one were required to make judgment with significant emotions
attached, like whether a person is a security threat or not. In post 9-11
America, it would not be at all difficult to get a unanimous judgment on
whether a Middle Eastern-looking young man with a beard and turban is a
security risk, even if Canada’s Defense Minister has a beard and a turban.
Today, with Trump’s team groupthink
it is not difficult to get a consensus that those from Muslim countries pose a
significant threat to America.
Referring to my earlier story of the
mullah and his donkey, it is apparent that the social environment can be a very
powerful influence on whether we believe the pious mullah or the braying
from the author’s book, Liberating The Malay Mind, published by ZI
Publications, Petaling Jaya, 2013. The second edition was released in January