Malaysian-born Bakri Musa writes frequently on issues affecting his native land. His essays have appeared in the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asiaweek, International Herald Tribune, Education Quarterly, SIngapore's Straits Times, and The New Straits Times. His commentary has aired on National Public Radio's Marketplace. His regular column Seeing It My Way appears in Malaysiakini. Bakri is also a regular contributor to th eSun (Malaysia).
He has previously written "The Malay Dilemma Revisited: Race Dynamics in Modern Malaysia" as well as "Malaysia in the Era of Globalization," "An Education System Worthy of Malaysia," "Seeing Malaysia My Way," and "With Love, From Malaysia."
Bakri's day job (and frequently night time too!) is as a surgeon in private practice in Silicon Valley, California. He and his wife Karen live on a ranch in Morgan Hill.
This website is updated twice a week on Sundays and Wednesdays at 5 PM California time.
The Malay coconut shell had been toppled many times in our history, and not necessarily through our own efforts, as when those early Muslim traders entered our world. They came to trade but through their exemplary day-to-day activities and conduct, they upended our core belief system. Those Muslim traders transformed Malays from believing in multiple deities to a one All-Powerful and All-Encompassing God. That did not change our physical world but it was momentous nonetheless precisely because of that. We adapted to that new world in a smooth and seamless transition. We became better for it.
The colonials too flipped over our shell. Unlike those Muslims traders, the changes the colonials brought about were physical and demographic, as when they flooded the country with immigrants to work the tin mines and rubber estates. Those colonialists also made their presence known in no uncertain terms, to the natives as well as immigrants, who was in charge.
We cursed the colonials for upending our familiar comfortable world. Nonetheless their flipping over our coconut shell exposed us to a new and much wider world. At the micro or personal level, if not for the colonials I would still today be an orang hamba (slave) at the istana (palace), just like my ancestors. There are others who argue that the colonialism itself was a form of slavery. That may well be so.
At the macro or societal level, the British colonials (though not the earlier Dutch or Portuguese) introduced modern education. Thousands benefited from that. To be sure, those colonials did not do that with much enthusiasm nor funded it with bountiful generosity. They did it in portions just enough to satisfy their collective conscience and to meet their pragmatic need for locally qualified people to help them rule us more effectively and, not to be discounted, cheaply.
There were other less appreciated but nonetheless significant and enduring benefits of colonial rule. That may not be a politically correct assertion to make, nonetheless the British gave us Munshi Abdullah. If not for them, he too would be another indentured laborer at the istana, and Malay literature would remain nothing more than the chronicles of khayalan (fantasies).
Another global cataclysm that toppled the metaphorical coconut shell of our Malay world was World War II. While the colonialists’ entry forced a sea change in our Malay way of life and matters physical, the Japanese invasion triggered even more. They not only changed the country physically, and it was a very terrible change, but also and of much greater significance and permanence, triggered a momentous change in the Malay psyche.
The sight of those hitherto invincible white Tuans and their Mems scurrying in their Austins and Morris Minors chased by the short, yellow Japanese on their sardine can-made bicycles made quite an impact on the collective natives’ psyche: The myth of white supremacy forever shattered! It was this that emboldened Malays to pursue with even greater vigor our independence.
While external upheavals can topple our coconut shell, we cannot always count on them or predict the outcome to be in our favor. Nor could we anticipate the costs we would have to bear, which was considerable as we saw with colonialism and the Japanese Occupation. That is a crucial caveat. It would be much more preferable for us to make our own effort at toppling our shell. Then we could control its timing and thus minimize the collateral damage. We would also be more likely to get the changes we desired.
Toppling our coconut shell begins with our freeing ourselves mentally to imagine the world beyond the present. That is the crucial first step. Once we can imagine, then we can fly, or in the words of the great Muhammad Ali, “A man who has no imagination has no wings.”
Imagination rules the world, Napoleon once said. Once one’s imagination is ignited, there is no going back; our shell will be toppled. The question then will be whether it is done with great care so as not to incur collateral damages, or recklessly as in the rampage of a revolution. The former is preferable. However, as the promises of flipping our shell are so great, the fear of the latter should not deter us.
A sure way of igniting our imagination is to be dissatisfied with our present condition. Change, and thus progress, depends on us not being satisfied with the status quo. Once we have this sense of dissatisfaction or even better, anger, that would motivate us to topple over and get out from underneath our shell. Immigrants are successful in their adopted land because they are driven by dissatisfaction with their native land.
A major obstacle for Malays specifically and Muslims generally is our ingrained but misguided notion of satisfaction with the status quo, al qadar – our fate is written in the book – the passive acceptance that there is not much that we can do to alter our destiny. This destructive religious determinism is just as crippling as the pseudo modern biological one – our fate lies with our genes. The latter is from our misunderstanding of science; the former, the misreading of our faith.
There is much that we can do at the individual level to fire up our imagination. Merely looking at and being curious of the wonderful world around and within us would open up our minds. Observing the stars above had triggered many an imagination. With it, Copernicus transformed our view of the universe from a geocentric one that we inherited from the Greeks to a heliocentric one. Many a theological and other shells were shattered by that singular observation.
Exposing ourselves to the imagination of others is another, as with the old storytelling. Today it would be reading. Pictures and videos both expand and restrict that reach. It expands because of the richness of the images; restricts because the photographer or videographer imposes her imagination upon her viewers! Travel and experiencing other cultures too stretch our imagination. Mystics go into seclusion for extended periods to force a change in the normal rhythm of their lives to effect similar ends.
At the societal level, the proven pathways towards igniting our imagination and thus liberating our minds include information, education, and our involvement in trade and commerce.
Once we are aware through education, information and our travels or trading activities that there is a much wider world out there, then we are not likely to be satisfied with our own confined dark space no matter how comfortable it may seem to us at the time or what a paradise it is as per the repeated assurances of our leaders.
All three – information, education, and commerce – apart from opening up our minds and facilitating the toppling of our shell, are also the best ways to prepare us for the new open world. The following chapters will deal with each of these elements. Before proceeding, I pause and reassess where we are, the direction we are headed, and the destination we aspire to reach.
Adapted from the author’s book, Liberating The Malay Mind, published by ZI Publications, Petaling Jaya, 2013. The second edition was released in January 2016.
The False Comfort and Security Underneath the Coconut Shell
Comfort and Security Underneath the Coconut Shell
The North Koreans are convinced that they live in Paradise
because their “Beloved Leader” tells them so. Never mind that they wake up
every morning with nothing to look forward to, and go to sleep at night on an
empty stomach. Likewise, Malaysian leaders never tire of telling us that they
are competent and honest despite the mess the country is in, while they
luxuriate in palatial mansions and citizens struggle to eke out a living. Those
leaders could not possibly afford such obscene opulence just on their
government wages. However, express your doubts and you stand accused of being blasphemous,
disloyal, or even traitorous.
to the coconut shell metaphor, that little (or even big) frog can be smug about
his world and claim to comprehend and be in full command of it. After all what
is there to understand or command? His world is dark and small. He is the only
one to obey his orders!
proverbial Señor Froggie does not appreciate is that his universe, huge as it
may seem to him, is nothing but a speck.
the outside may be tempted to lord it over the unfortunate entrapped frog. We
may even pity it. However, as Pramoedya noted in his Child of All Nations, “Pity is the feeling of well-intentioned
people who are unable to act.” Impotent, we assuage what little guilt we may
harbor by rationalizing that the poor soul is probably quite happy with his lot.
That may well be; after all you do not miss what you do not know or have.
many forces, subtle as well as brute, that keep us cooped under our coconut
shell. The subtle ones include the feudal elements of our culture, as with our
ready acceptance of our fate (takdir)
and our meek acceptance of and deference to authority figures. Then there are
our schools and universities; they indoctrinate our young instead of teaching
them to think critically. We are also easily taken in with labels; call something
“Islamic” and we fall for it right away, suspending our critical judgment. I
understand that they are working on an “Islamic” beer! Our leaders exploit this
by labeling those they disagree with as anti-Islam, “anti-nationals,” or
“unpatriotic.” We in turn are only too ready to believe those labels. The
current puerile debate over halal and haram is a manifestation of this meaningless
As for the
brute forces, there are the intrusive and repressive laws like the dreadful
Internal Security Act where a minister has absolute power to incarcerate
citizens without trial. Now Malaysia has the National Security Act of 2016 with
even more unchecked powers given to the authorities. Again, note those labels;
those laws are not for our “security” but to keep us subservient.
should ever have unchecked and absolute power. As the Sudanese reformer Mahmoud
Mohamad Taha observed, “No person is perfect enough to be entrusted with the
liberty and dignity of others.” We need effective checks and balances, and
respect for due process. Those are not niceties but necessities. Do not let any
mullah, regardless how impressive his title or big his turban is, tell you
otherwise. You would be a donkey to believe him.
obstacles face our entrapped citizen frog in escaping from underneath his
coconut shell. The first and greatest is to instill in him the realization that
he is indeed trapped, and then to ignite in him the desire to escape; second,
help him escape or topple that shell; and third, assist him to adjust to his
new open world.
obstacle is the toughest. Far too often we lack even the awareness of being
trapped. We remain blissfully ignorant. This awareness is crucial but by itself
is not enough; we must also then have the desire to escape. For that to happen,
we must first be dissatisfied with our current state.
It may seem
perverse but there are those who are content to remain underneath their shell,
readily accepting their fate as Allah’s will–al qadar (divinely destined). Who are we to challenge His design?
is the universal power of inertia; we are comfortable with the status quo.
Besides, it has served our parents, and their parents and even grandparents
well. Again, who are we to alter tradition?
ambition, that would only upset mankind, as Pramoedya noted in his short story,
Djongos dan Babu (Houseboy and Maid).
That family destined themselves to be slaves forever. If God were to pity them,
their thirtieth generation would have descended so low as to be no longer
humans but worms crawling inside the earth, wrote Pramoedya.
shell world of Sabu and Ina (the sibling characters in that story) was tossed
over many times, yet they still sought to be underneath one. The Dutch enslaved
them, but when the colonial world collapsed, instead of liberating themselves
they chose to be enslaved under the Japanese. When the Japanese were defeated,
the pair again chose to be enslaved, this time by the returning Dutch. Happy to
be perpetual slaves they refused to be free with their fellow Indonesians,
deeming themselves “too good” to be with their fellow dirty, brown natives.
replete with examples of external upheavals resulting in the inadvertent
toppling of shells. Trapped underneath we are not even aware up until then of
the external cataclysms. Only when all of a sudden, we find ourselves in a new,
open and much bigger world do we realized that we had been cooped up all along.
destined themselves to be eternal slaves (or accept their fate) like
Pramoedya’s Sabu and Ina would find this new world far from welcoming; in fact,
it would be downright frightening. They would then scramble to find new shells
to hide under, like hermit crabs exposed after the onslaught of a tidal wave.
For others, the external upheaval that toppled their shell would be a welcomed
Toppling Our Coconut Shell
Excerpted from the author’s book, Liberating The Malay Mind, published by ZI Publications.
Make Sultan Johor’s Alleged Briber A Hero
M. Bakri Musa
A prominent businessman who had hosted more than one Agong as well as many sultans was hauled away in his orange lock-up attire, desperate to hide his face, on charges of trying to bribe the Sultan of Johor over recommendations for a federal royal honorific title.
The Malaysian Anti-Corruption Agency (MACC) has yet to release the suspect’s identity, or the charges. The social and mainstream media have already condemned him, Malaysia’s corruption personified. It is rare for the two often very contrasting views to coincide.
Conspicuous by its absence is any mention of the complementary if not necessary role of the other half of the equation, recipients of his alleged bribes. If we were to focus on that instead, it would expose this corrosive and despicable aspect of Malaysian society. The man, as well as MACC Chief, the Sultan of Johor, and a few others would then emerge as heroes, and Malaysia the better for it. As for who the true villains were, we would have to wait.
The suspect was also alleged to have “brokered” on behalf of aspiring Malay knight wannabes among rich non-Malays, those willing to fork out huge sums for the privilege of donning the white songkok and the accompanying monkey suit during official functions.
The irony does not escape me. Non-Malays, the Chinese in particular, may be resentful if not disdainful of Malay community and culture, the consequence of being excluded from the New Economic Policy. Their elite however, are not at all bashful in pursuing feudal Malay titles. That reflects more the financial, social and other clouts such titles confer in contemporary Malaysia, less the honorees’ respect for Malay values.
Cases of Malaysian royal titles being bought, or allegations thereof, are not news. They are also far from being mere allegations. There is a portrait, viral in the social media, of a mongoloid-looking character barely out of his teens, all prim and proper in his official pose as a Malay hulubalang. I wonder what great service this prodigy had rendered.
I was once at a social function in America hosted by one of Malaysia’s many sultans here on a private visit. I found myself in a quiet corner with some of the guests. The conversation drifted on the many titled ones in the crowd, and of royal awards generally. To clarify and confirm what I thought I was hearing, I inquired as to the prevailing price of such titles, specifically with this sultan, known for his exuberant generosity in dispensing such honors. When told, I replied with nonchalant casualness that it was well within my affordability range. With the other sultans, the rates could be doubled, I was told.
Imagine my surprise when a few weeks later I received a phone call from Malaysia. The caller identified himself as a “Raja” and “well connected to the palace.” He wanted to pursue “the topic we had discussed!”
I burst out laughing and assured him that I had only been joking. He kept pressing me, unconvinced by my reply. He was so persistent that I had to hang up on him. I did not know whether he was genuine or a con artist trying to rip me off. I was not interested to find out.
Thus, when the Sultan of Johor exposed that bribery attempt, it elicited a yawn in me. What was new?
There was indeed something new, or at least unusual. First, the manner of his revealing it – on his social media. My inquisitiveness then took over. Why him, and of much greater significance, why now and the manner?
When I was a surgeon in GHJB in 1977, a colleague was banished out of state within 24 hours for allegedly being rude to a sultan. No trial, no due process. Imagine trying to bribe one! I expected the royal keris to have been sharpened, as in days of yore, not a posting in social media. Not many would dare even consider bribing a sultan, except perhaps the Sultan of Sulu. That would not be a bribe as he has no official function or power, and thus no favors to bestow.
It is safe to conclude that the Johor Sultan was not the suspect’s first or only attempted bribee. It is also safe to conclude that he must have some familiarity with sultans generally and that of Johor specifically.
In Malay culture, peasants bringing tributes to their sultans is the norm, much like Hindus their deities. That businessman could be trying to be a humble and loyal rakyat.
If MACC were to focus only on the briber, then this case would be no different from the many others. The same dynamics, comparable greed, and similar motives; only the personalities differ, and of course the size, nature, and purpose of the loot.
Circumstances create heroes. This is the rare and unique opportunity for the MACC chief to prove his mettle, to be a true, honest, and devoted public servant, as he without end claims to be. “Flip” this alleged briber; make him a prosecution witness instead of the defendant. Offer him immunity and a deal he could not refuse in return for the “goods” he would deliver.
It would not be an easy choice for the suspect. Coming from a culture that bred the feared Triads, not dissimilar from the Mafia, with its code of silence enforced with unimaginable brutality, being truthful would not come naturally, not to mention could be very dangerous. On the other hand, the prospect of a long jail sentence, and leaving behind your foreign wife and young children, is not palatable either.
Then consider the potential rewards, of being hailed a hero for exposing the seedy aspect of the royalty class, by Malays and non-Malays alike. He would then be truly deserving of his Tan Sri title.
He had it easy thus far, out on only RM200K bail. Peanuts to someone like him and in these days of the depreciated ringgit. From another aspect, the price of one Datukship from a cheap sultan.
Imagine if he were to reveal all. A special tribunal, as provided for in the constitution (thanks to Mahathir), would have to be empaneled to prosecute those alleged corrupt sultans. Imagine the electricity once the charges were proffered. Najib would sigh a huge relief as it would wipe off the festering 1MDB scandal from the front pages. His ardent defender, aka Attorney-General Apandi Ali, would also emerge as a hero among honest Malaysians, instead of as now, a renegade and protector of the corrupt.
On the political front, in one fell swoop Najib would outstrip Mahathir in striking fear and terror among the sultans. They are still chafing at their collective treatment by Mahathir in the 1980s and 90s when he stripped them of their personal immunity as well as their veto powers over legislations. The sultans have been asserting themselves lately, in tandem with Najib’s increasing vulnerability. Their not assenting to the National Security Act of 2016 was a non-too-subtle manifestation of this new assertiveness. The so-called First Lady of Malaysia outflanking the Queen and the various sultanahs in the gaudy ostentatious arenas also did not sit well with the royals.
Expect UMNO newsletters Utusan, Berita Harian and The New Straits Times reprising the 1980s, filling their pages with lurid titillating details of royal peccadilloes.
What prompted Sultan Ibrahim, the son of the only sultan ever convicted of murder, to expose this alleged bribery? The Johore royal household is the wealthiest not just in Malaysia and not just among sultans. Its involvement in the massive Forest City Project would ensure its wealth would remain undiminished for generations no matter how profligate their princes and princesses. Perhaps the amount of the alleged bribe was insulting.
Forest City is drawing much negative reaction, in part because of the mega sums, massive Mainland Chinese involvement, and unknown environmental consequences. To many Malays this development rekindles painful humiliating memories of what his great grandfather did to that little island across Selat Tebrau.
Then there was the sultan declining to offer himself for election by his brother rulers to be Deputy King a few months ago. As all kids know, the difference between not wanting versus not being given can be hard to discern. There is not much fraternal love lost between him and his brother rulers. This exposé could be payback time.
This high-profile case will not end up in the usual NFA (No Further Action) file. The only question is whether the suspect, together with MACC chief, AG Apandi Ali, and the sultan emerge as heroes or renegades?
RUU355 U-Turn Exposes Najib's Mischief And Vulnerability
RUU355 U-Turn Exposes Najib’s Mischief
M. Bakri Musa
Many applaud Prime Minister Najib’s recent U-turn on RUU355,
the legislative amendment to “strengthen” the Syariah. That circus, which is far
from over, exposes Najib’s mischief and vulnerability. Lauding him for withdrawing
the government’s sponsorship of that bill is akin to praising a pyromaniac who
had tried to start a fire but failed. Najib should be condemned, not praised, for
his dangerous game of stirring religious discord.
enters the discourse in Malaysia, all rational discussions evaporate. Leaders
and followers, Muslims and non-Muslims alike, descent with gusto into the gutter
of religious and underlying racial bigotry. I would have thought that such a
realization would have cautioned leaders to be more circumspect when treading on
matters religious. On the contrary, as revealed by Najib’s latest and very crude
mischief, they are only too eager to fan the fire.
60 years of a corrupt and incompetent UMNO-led administration, Malaysia is littered
with debris and garbage, literal as well as figurative. Any idiot with a
matchstick could start a conflagration with ease. Imagine a mischievous one, if
Malaysians let it be. It is time to grab the matchstick away from Najib’s reach.
began as PAS Hadi’s private member’s bill. Clueless on matters of statecraft, PAS
leaders, well exemplified by Hadi, resort to simplistic and gimmicky maneuvers,
as with introducing “Islamic laws” and making Malaysia an “Islamic state.”
For his part,
Najib was desperate to be seen as a latter-day Malay hero championing syariah.
He also sensed an opportunity to create mischief by driving a wedge in the
opposition coalition; hence his over eagerness to take over the bill’s sponsorship.
Later, caught and surprised by the unanticipated strong opposition from the now
emboldened non-UMNO Barisan partners, specifically from Sarawak, Najib was
forced to backtrack.
by half, Najib now finds himself on the unfamiliar terrain of having to make difficult
choices. He opted for throwing PAS under the bus, hoping that his support among
conservative Malays would not be too adversely affected. The risk of losing his
crucial Sarawak partners, and with that the fall of his government, was much
greater and more immediate. Earlier, Najib had hoped to endear himself to PAS followers
and entice their party away from the opposition in time for the next election.
vulnerability now exposed, expect more challenges and shifts in the wind, and
for him to be jerked around like a yoyo. It would be quite a sight! As for PAS,
it is but the flighty woman jilted by her hitherto ardent suitor and now not
welcomed by her previous partner. Not a pretty sight for a far-from-pretty old maid.
the choice is simple. Deny Najib the privilege of leading Malaysia. Snatch the
matchstick away from him.
If I were a
non-Malay, I would support RUU355 with unrestraint enthusiasm. I would do
likewise for all Islam-centric legislations, including the introduction of hudud. My assertion here is not meant to
shock or raise eyebrows, nor is it a clumsy attempt at sarcasm or literary
spoof, rather a matter of pragmatism if not blatant opportunism.
As a Malay
however, I am terrified at this crude fascistic attempt to make Islam an
instrument for repression. It pains me to see my faith debased as a political and
social tool to control the ummah. Greatness can never emerge from a controlled
and repressed society. Islam thrives only when there is freedom and justice.
Oppression promotes neither.
Our ulamas and
scholars have failed us here. They they have subverted what should be a
political debate into a test of our faith. Oppose RUU355 and you are destined
for Hell! How infantile!
many reasons (most are selfish and self-serving) why non-Malays should support the
expansion of Islamic institutions. One benign rationale would be not to interfere
with the wishes of the majority (Malays), as long as those do not impact you adversely.
The constitution protects and spares non-Muslims from hudud. You could say that they do not “deserve” such
should for example, push for public executions and whippings, following Afghanistan’s
example. Turn those into revenue-producing events, with “premium” front-row seats
commanding hefty prices, and market them as showcasing the “beauty” and
“superiority” of Islamic laws.
Sell ads to
whip and sword manufacturers, much like oil companies advertise at Formula One
races. Such public executions and whippings could rival major spectator events like
boxing to draw foreign tourists.
It is also in
the self-interest of non-Muslims to encourage Malays to be obsessed and
consumed with matters religious and the pursuit of the Hereafter. With more
young Malays preoccupied with studying revealed knowledge and prophetic
traditions, there would be that much fewer to pursue STEM. Meaning, less
competition for non-Malays wishing to become doctors, scientists and engineers.
Malays opting for Al Azhar and Pakistani madrasahs, there would be less competition
among Malaysians aspiring for Oxford and Harvard. Not that our community is a
formidable competitor on that front.
non-Muslim politicians, embracing pro-Islam postures would be a sure way into
the hearts of Malays and capturing their votes. Those politicians would become
instant darlings of the Malay community, fast eclipsing the likes of that mualaf Ridhaun Tee, and without having
to change your name or religion. You don’t have to suck up to UMNO or PAS
politicians either! All you have to do is don white kopiah (or hijab, for a woman) at Muslim functions, and of course
support RUU355 and similar legislations.
should be heartened that the Padang Merbok pro-RUU355 rally drew thousands; overwhelmingly
Malays. It went well past midnight. Not even the early evening rain dampened
the mood. They came from as far north as Perlis and Kelantan, giddy with the
excitement of doing God’s work, as they had been led to believe.
acres of paddy fields not tilled that day and the next, the thousands of rubber
trees not tapped, and hundreds of fishing boats idle in port. You do not need
to be an economist to see the impact; all negative. Or perhaps it was minimal
as they were marginal participants in the modern Malaysian economy, consumed as
they were with the Hereafter.
As one of
the few non-Malays present at that rally noted, the only non-Muslims affected by
RUU355 would be casino operators. Few, Muslims or non-Muslims, have sympathy
that non-Malay for his deep understanding of Malay culture and values. It is a
sad commentary that individuals like him are a rarity today. Not so a few generations
the failed Malayan Union, a coalition of populist Malay organizations under PUTERA,
together with the primarily non-Malay trade union group AMCJA, put forth a
proposal for self-rule.
feature of that proposal would have liberalized conditions for citizenship. The
leftist Malay leaders in PUTERA enthusiastically embraced that simply because those
new citizens would be called Melayu, not Malayans. Non-Malays, being pragmatic,
too accepted that. They could not care less about the label as long as they were
easily seduced into relaxing the citizenship requirements in return for the
Melayu label. Never mind that those would-be culup Melayus were not Muslims and could not speak Malay or give a
hoot about Malay mores and customs!
the British rejected the PUTERA/AMCJA idea and instead imposed the Federation Agreement.
the label is all important. Do what you want with the content, in line with our
culture’s premium on peragga (appearance).
It was true then and it is even more true today. Label something as Islamic or hudud, and Malays would swallow it
without question. Likewise, anything from the land of the Prophet is holy. Even
the flies in Mecca are hallal! It is not a surprise that Najib’s receiving
millions from a Saudi sheik be viewed as borkat
(divine bounty) by Malays and not, as the rest of the world sees it, blatant
centuries ago the British nearly succeeded in destroying the Chinese
civilization by giving the masses what they craved for–opium. In the process
the Brits made tons of money and controlled China. The Chinese elite, from the
emperor down to the mandarins, were aware of the dangers opium posed but they could
not prevail against the mighty British.
on the other hand, our leaders are the biggest pushers of the metaphorical
opium. Non-Malays should let that be and let Malays be narcotized. Then like
the British in China of yore, non-Malays could control the economy and country even
more. If Malays were to complain or be resentful, flatter them that a much
bigger and better reward awaits them in the Hereafter.
however is a distracting issue. The key conclusion from Najib’s latest U-turn
on RUU355 is that he and the party he leads are now vulnerable. Najib is
floundering. As any boxer will tell you, that is the best time to knock your