Malaysian-born Bakri Musa writes frequently on issues affecting his native land. His essays have appeared in the Far Eastern Economic Review, Asiaweek, International Herald Tribune, Education Quarterly, SIngapore's Straits Times, and The New Straits Times. His commentary has aired on National Public Radio's Marketplace. His regular column Seeing It My Way appears in Malaysiakini. Bakri is also a regular contributor to th eSun (Malaysia).
He has previously written "The Malay Dilemma Revisited: Race Dynamics in Modern Malaysia" as well as "Malaysia in the Era of Globalization," "An Education System Worthy of Malaysia," "Seeing Malaysia My Way," and "With Love, From Malaysia."
Bakri's day job (and frequently night time too!) is as a surgeon in private practice in Silicon Valley, California. He and his wife Karen live on a ranch in Morgan Hill.
This website is updated twice a week on Sundays and Wednesdays at 5 PM California time.
Interview: The Future of Malays #7: Touching on the economy, while to date Malays
have made some progress nonetheless the new generation considers that
insignificant. They demand a bigger share of the cake, at least 30 percent. How
can we achieve this target?
MBM: To begin with, which mortal has declared that
Malays are entitled to 30 percent? In which verse is it so written? Why 30 and
not 60 or 20? Queried thus, it is obvious that the figure 30 percent is only
the figment of someone’s imagination, or more correctly, fantasy. Whether we
control 20 or 60 percent of the economy would depend entirely on our efforts
and initiatives, not based on some written parchment.
agree that our achievement thus far, and not just in economics, is far from
satisfactory. It is in fact pathetic when you consider that UMNO, meaning
Malays, have been ruling the country for over half a century. Whom can we blame
– leaders or citizens?
development depends of us, individually and as a society, having and running successful
enterprises. A successful enterprise requires three essential capitals. Most
are familiar with only financial capital – money. More important, and we do not
emphasize enough, are human and social capitals. We provide literally billions
in financial capital, but because we ignore the other two, our enterprises
often fail or do not succeed well.
I began my private practice in America,
I did not have any money but because of the value of my human capital was high
(being a surgical specialist), I had no difficulty borrowing from the bank.
That reflects the primacy of human over financial capital. When your human
capital is high, financial capital is not an issue.
bank was not shy in lending me money even though I was a recent immigrant to America and had
no friends or family to guarantee the loan. That reflects the high quality of America’s
social capital. The bank had faith in the system that I had received my medical
credentials legitimately and not through corrupt or nefarious means.
Consequently it had confidence in my competence and thus potential success as a
America’s social capital been low and I could obtain my license through corrupt
means or through a degree mill (there was a time in America in the not-too-distant
past when that was possible), there would be no assurance that I would be competent.
My patients too would sooner or later discover that I was a fraud or a
physician in name only.
American society has low social capital, the banks would not readily grant loans
especially to a recent immigrant (pendatang
as it were), non-white person (not an American Bumiputra, to put in Malaysian perspective),
or someone who shares the religion as Osama bin Ladin. I might not repay the
loan on the basis that interest payment is sinful!
America’s social capital to Malaysia’s,
especially Malays’. Could a competent Malay engineer who is a member of PAS get
a loan from Bank Islam or land a contract with the UMNO government?
Jarjis, former Malaysian Ambassador to United States, related how he had difficulty
securing a loan from local banks to start his engineering consultancy firm in
the 1970s even though he had a PhD in engineering from McGill, an elite
university. Now that he is an UMNO strong man, they line up not only to lend
but also give him money! That
reflects the low quality of our social capital.
few years ago a student at a leading American university had her scholarship withdrawn
because her father was active in PAS. Again, that reflects our low social
capital! A society with high social
capital values the individual’s talent and ability; a society with low social
capital values who and not what he knows.
The problem of financial capital is readily solvable; not
so with human and social capitals. If we do not elevate the value of Malay
human and social capitals, there is no hope for us regardless how generous the
quotas or lucrative the contracts we reserve for ourselves. We could kiss
goodbye the 30 percent goal, or even the 20 percent!
To enhance our social capital, we must separate as far as
possible the incestuous relationship between politics and economics. Granted,
we cannot fully divorce the two as they are inextricably linked, but politics
in Malaysia generally and Malay society specifically interferes with or more
correctly poisons the other sectors especially economic.
Our academics are less scholars and intellectuals, more
UMNO activists. Peruse their resume and intellectual output. No wonder they are
caricatured as Professor Kangkong (pseudo scholars). The tragic consequence is
not just the plummeting of the quality of our universities but a whole
generation of young Malaysians are wasted.
If we do not have qualified local or Malay experts, don’t
hesitate in getting foreigners. Even America has many foreign
professors. In all my school years in the 1950s I had only one Malay teacher
(other than those teaching me Malay). Likewise at university, as I studied
abroad. Yet I did not feel in anyway deprived academically or felt less Malay.
Nor was my education inadequate or that I have fallen under the sway of
I care only the competent and diligent to teach our
students. There is no pride if they were taught by incompetent or less diligent
Malay professors. Where is the pride of being operated by a Malay surgeon if
you have to suffer the consequences of his inadequate skills? What pride is
there if a Malay engineer were to design our bridges but there is more water
flowing over than underneath them?
A society with high social capital values the expertise
and talent of the individual, not his race, tribe or political views.
Consider the many government-sponsored enterprises like
FELDA aimed at helping Malays. I would expect such entities to be led by competent
individuals with at least an MBA and vast corporate or private sector experience,
not discredited politicians and retired civil servants. Isa Samad, FELDA’s
head, has zero private sector experience; he could not even run a roadside
coffee stall. What is his legacy after leading Negri Sembilan for decades?
To enhance our social capital we must value the competent
and industrious regardless of their political sympathies (UMNO or PAS),
religious preferences (hijab wearers or fond of gowns and jeans), or the
singers they admire (Ito or Siti). We must also not be tolerant of those who
are corrupt, incompetent or have repeatedly abused our trust in them no matter
how much they praise us, or bribe us with our own (taxpayers’) money.
In short, a society with high social capital practices
meritocracy. I purposely avoided using that term as it is so often confused
with or limited to mean only paper qualifications and test scores. Its true scope
is much broader.
On another front, a society with high social capital saves
diligently and is not wasteful. The act of savings goes beyond simply putting
money in the bank and being prudent. It reflects an ability to think and plan
for the future. Those who do so are more likely to thrive. A society with high
savings rate has ample “capital formation” to finance economic development, as exemplified
by the Japanese and South Koreans.
When Datuk Onn and Za’aba talked about “correcting”
Malays, they meant that even though they were not aware of the concept of
social capital. There is nothing wrong with Malay society; we need only enhance
our social and human capitals.
If one has high human capital but lives in a society with
low social capital, one could always migrate to where the social capital is
high. Every year thousands of Chinese, Indians and Europeans leave their native
land to do exactly that.
The quality of human capital is dependent on health and
education. The first is obvious; if you sickly, you are not likely to be
productive. The second is related to enhancing citizens’ skills, ingenuity and
diligence. Consider Proton; while manufacturing cars it could also train
mechanics. Once the value of their human capital is enhanced, then only provide
them with the necessary financial capital so they could open their own
workshops. Do so and within a few years we would see Ahmad Auto Repairs and
Mahmud Motorworks mushrooming in Malaysian towns. Who gets the franchise to
operate Petronas stations at present? Politicians who have no idea the difference
between struts and carburetors!
Likewise with contracts for canteens in schools and
public buildings; those should be given to graduates of MARA catering programs.
Once they have completed their training (thus have enhanced human capital),
only then provide them with the financial capital and contracts. Once they are
successful as canteen operators they would expand into their own restaurants and
Every year the government gives out for free valuable
state land. Who gets them? UMNO operatives who are loath to get their fingernails
dirty. Why not give those land to agricultural graduates of UPM?
Enhance our human and social capitals; the two are far
more crucial than financial capital. If we ignore developing our human and social
capitals we might as well kiss goodbye our 30 percent goal. Any other pursuits
are but fantasy.
Suaris Interview. The Future of Malays # 8: You have written much on
improving our education. Is the present system capable of preparing Malays for
the future? If not what should be done to improve, replace and overcome those
Interview: The Future of Malays Part 6. What is your view on PAS and its leadership?
Do you think that their policies and struggles would usher or obstruct
Malay/Muslim development in our country?
original in Malay appeared in www. Surais.wordpress.com on Feb 20, 2013.]
MBM: The leaders and
policies of PAS do not impress me. That however, is irrelevant. More pertinent
is that those leaders and their policies will cause Malays and Muslims to
regress. Whether we would enter Paradise under
PAS, only God knows, and He is not telling me or anyone else.
has two fundamental flaws. First, it is confused on whether to be a political
party, meaning one that aspires to one day hold power and lead the country, or
a religious entity. The two are not necessarily incompatible but PAS has yet to
choose which one has the greater priority. The price for this blurring of
objective is that the organization does not excel in either.
PAS is not democratic. The highest and ultimate authority lies not with its
members, as it should be, rather an unelected Council of Ulamas. Worse, that
council is restricted only to ulamas. Where is it written that only ulamas have
the ability, wisdom or privilege to lead?
a democracy, the ultimate power must lie with voters or members. Were PAS to
govern, would its ministers be answerable to Parliament or the Council of
Ulamas? Which body has the higher and ultimate authority? According to our
constitution, it is Parliament; to PAS, the Council of Ulamas.
is no small matter. Consider the current crisis in Iran where its unelected Majlis
Syura is in conflict with the elected Parliament. I have no problem with the
Ulama Council being merely advisory. The Ulama Council must respect and defer
to Parliament. There is no place for anointed leadership in a democracy. Sovereignty
lies with citizens.
another level, PAS is consumed with labels rather than content. Its leaders are
obsessed with hudud and the Islamic
State but fail to declare what they mean by those terms. Which Islam state do
they hold up as a model? Iran
and Saudi Arabia?
with hudud; as non-Muslims are
spared, criminals would be punished based not on the crimes they commit rather
their faith. A Muslim committing adultery would be sentenced to death by
stoning; a non-Muslim would suffer only the fury of their spouse. A Muslim
caught stealing would have his hand chopped off; a non-Muslim would suffer
merely a fine or jail sentence. Is that just? If it is not just, it cannot be
Islamic. PAS has yet to address let alone reconcile this conflict.
party’s greatest weakness is that its leadership core singularly lacks
management talent. The skills needed for running a modern state are very
different from that of being an ulama. The training, academic qualifications and
experience of our ulamas are very narrow. They have never been exposed to the
behavioral sciences, while their understanding of modern science and technology
is abysmal. Their mindset is equally circumscribed.
for their political skills, PAS leaders have not shown the ability and aptitude
for cooperating with like-minded players, specifically their fellow partners in
Pakatan even on already agreed-upon goals. They behave little kids; play ball
my way or I’ll take it away. They view compromise as a sign of weakness. They
forget that politics, as Bismarck wisely observed, is essentially the art of
reflects the management talent or lack thereof with PAS. After leading it for decades,
cholera, which has been wiped out elsewhere, is still endemic. Low level of
public health is directly the consequence of managerial ineptitude. The people of
Kelantan, overwhelmingly Malays, remain the poorest in the nation. Again that
reflects the limitations of a PAS administration.
have tremendous respect for Tok Nik Aziz as an ulama but voters elected him to
be chief minister, not chief ulama. He should be humble enough to acknowledge his
significant limitations as an administrator. That is his major weakness and fault.
Had he been aware, or humble enough to be made aware of, he would have sought
Reagan, revered as one of America’s greatest presidents. He readily
acknowledged his intellectual and managerial limitations but he was very confident
of where he wanted to take his nation. So he recruited the most talented and
accomplished individuals to his cabinet so they could help him achieve his
are many such Malaysians, Kelantanese specifically. Why couldn’t Tok Aziz
co-opt a few of them? Perhaps they could not recite the Koran and do not wear
big turbans and flowing robes but if they are competent executives, that should
be good enough. Frankly I could not care less even if they were not Malays or
Muslims. You want someone to make sure that the rubbish is picked up regularly
and the welfare of citizens taken care of.
is obsessed with the Islamic State. Many, and not just non-Muslims, disagree
with that. Yet PAS remains stubborn. Wouldn’t it be more meaningful and productive
if PAS leaders were to understand and appreciate the reasons for the lack of
enthusiasm and outright opposition? The greatest fear is that Malaysia would become
another Iran or Saudi Arabia. Even Tok’ Aziz’s wife would oppose that. Imagine,
women not allowed to drive!
do your allay their fears and make them see your viewpoint? One thing is
certain. If you label them as apostates or kafirs, that would surely alienate
should focus on content and not be consumed with labels. Work with your Pakatan
partners to get rid of corruption, abuse of power, and those laws that denigrate
the human condition. Those are all wrong from the Islamic perspective. Do that
and we that much closer to an Islamic state. To me, an Islamic state is one
where there is peace, justice, prosperity, free of corruption, and abuse of
power. Never mind the label.
UMNO today has strayed far from our Islamic ideals. Corruption, cronyism, and
abuse of power are the antithesis of things Islamic. They cannot be mollified
with the building of ornate mosques or having gala Maulad Nabi parades.
upcoming general election will be a choice between a party that has a wee bit
of competence in statecraft but is riddled with greed, corruption and abuse of
power among its leaders, UMNO, versus another that is sorely lacking in managerial
capability but whose leaders are pious, honest, and not obsessed with
materialism, PAS. Which would one choose?
course we all would like the choice of competent, honest and efficient leaders,
but Allah has not given us that.
are like multiple choice tests, you select the best answer from the list given.
Given the choice we have, I would unhesitatingly pick PAS over UMNO. We can
easily train someone to be better executives or help them by supplying those
talents. It would be considerably more difficult if not impossible to change
someone’s inner core of greed, corruptness, and repeated breaches of faith.
Leaders with those ugly traits would continue to get worse, if given the power
upcoming election is an opportunity for Malaysians to deny the corrupt, the cheaters,
and the greedy that power and opportunity.
Interview: The Future of Malays #7: Touching on the economy, while to date Malays
have made some progress nonetheless the new generation considers that as insignificant.
They demand a bigger share of the cake, at least 30 percent. How can we achieve